Carbon emissions per unit of GDP (also called carbon emission intensity, CEI) can be utilized to measure regional carbon emission performance. In this study, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) and quantile regression are employed to investigate the factors that drive changes in CEI in China. Based on input-output SDA, CEI in China during 1992-2012 is decomposed from the perspectives of the total economy and economic sectors. The results specify that the industrial sector is the key sector for energy. conservation and emission reduction. Energy efficiency contributes the most to CEI reduction, whereas input structure, final demand structure, and final product structure are factors that hinder reductions. Furthermore, energy mix, technical progress, industrialization index, and final consumption rate are introduced as proxy variables. To reveal the changes of influencing factors with CEI increasing, the effects of these proxy variables on CEI are explored by quantile regression with panel data of 30 provinces from 1999 to 2014. The results indicate that energy mix, industrialization index, and final consumption rate have positive effects on CEI. As CEI increases, the effect of energy mix increases gradually, whereas the effect of industrialization index tends to decrease, and the effect of final consumption rate increases initially and then decreases. Technical progress and urbanization are both effective in reducing CEI. With CEI increasing, the negative effect of technical progress presents a trend of decrease, then increase. Conversely, the negative effect of urbanization is through the process of increase, then decrease.
作者：Wang, Shui-Hua;Lv, Yi-Ding;Sui, Yuxiu;Liu, Shuai;Wang, Su-Jing;Zhang, Yu-Dong
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL S...
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an important brain disease. It alters the brain structure. Recently, scholars tend to use computer vision based techniques to detect AUD. We collected 235 subjects, 114 alcoholic and 121 non-alcoholic. Among the 235 image, 100 images were used as training set, and data augmentation method was used. The rest 135 images were used as test set. Further, we chose the latest powerful technique-convolutional neural network (CNN) based on convolutional layer, rectified linear unit layer, pooling layer, fully connected layer, and softmax layer. We also compared three different pooling techniques: max pooling, average pooling, and stochastic pooling. The results showed that our method achieved a sensitivity of 96.88%, a specificity of 97.18%, and an accuracy of 97.04%. Our method was better than three state-of-the-art approaches. Besides, stochastic pooling performed better than other max pooling and average pooling. We validated CNN with five convolution layers and two fully connected layers performed the best. The GPU yielded a 149x acceleration in training and a 166x acceleration in test, compared to CPU.
CHINESE PHYSICS C
The existence of doubly heavy flavor baryons has not been well established experimentally so far. In this Letter we systematically investigate the weak decays of the doubly charmed baryons, Ξ~(++)_(cc)and Ξ~+_(cc), which should be helpful for experimental searches for these particles. The long-dista...
Today, fractal image encoding method becomes an effective loss compression method in multimedia without resolution, and its negativeness is that its high computational complexity. So many approximate methods are given to decrease the computation time. So the distribution of error points is valued to research. In this paper, by extracted primary additional error values, we first present a novel fast fractal encoding method. Then, with the extracted primary additional error values,we abstract the distribution of these values.We find that the different distribution of values denotes the different parts in images. Finally, we analyze the experimental results and find some properties of these values.The experimental results also show the effectiveness of the method.
Generalized Mandelbrot set (k-M set) is the basis of fractal analysis. This paper presents a novel method to generate k-M set, which generates k-M set precisely by constructing its asymptote family. Correctness of the proposed method is proved as well as computational complexity is researched. Further, application of the generation method is studied, which is used to analyze distribution of boundary points and periodic points of k-M set. Finally, experiments have been implemented to evaluate the theoretical results. (C)2017 All rights reserved.
作者：Wang, Shumei;Boevink, Petra C.;Welsh, Lydia;Zhang, Ruofang;Whisson, Stephen C.;Birch, Paul R. J.
The potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans secretes effector proteins that are delivered inside (cytoplasmic) or can act outside (apoplastic) plant cells to neutralize host immunity. Little is known about how and where effectors are secreted during infection, yet such knowledge is essential to understand and combat crop disease. We used transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated in planta expression, transformation of P. infestans with fluorescent protein fusions and confocal microscopy to investigate delivery of effectors to plant cells during infection. The cytoplasmic effector Pi04314, expressed as a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) fusion protein with a signal peptide to secrete it from plant cells, did not passively reenter the cells upon secretion. However, Pi04314-mRFP expressed in P. infestans was translocated from haustoria, which form intimate interactions with plant cells, to accumulate at its sites of action in the host nucleus. The well-characterized apoplastic effector EPIC1, a cysteine protease inhibitor, was also secreted from haustoria. EPIC1 secretion was inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), demonstrating that it is delivered by conventional Golgi-mediated secretion. By contrast, Pi04314 secretion was insensitive to BFA treatment, indicating that the cytoplasmic effector follows an alternative route for delivery into plant cells. Phytophthora infestans haustoria are thus sites for delivery of both apoplastic and cytoplasmic effectors during infection, following distinct secretion pathways.
Aiming at the shortcomings in the existing measurement technology, this article presents a new measurement algorithm by Binocular Stereovision. First, find the coordinates of the target object in two different image sensors, then change the values of the coordinates according to the space coordinates system. According to the theories of space analytic geometry, the real coordinates of the target point will be calculated. Choose proper boundary points of the target, whose spatial information will reflect the spatial information of the target object. It is known by experimental data that the error rate within 1 m is less than 2%.
In this paper, we focus on the feature pooling methods for scene character recognition. We research three kinds of pooling methods: the average (sum) pooling, max pooling and weighted-based pooling methods. Specifically, various feature pooling methods are introduced, their merits and demerits are studied, and existing problems are discussed. Finally, we offer a specific comparison on the ICDAR2003 and Chars74k databases.
Reasonable carbon sequestration and mitigation measures play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emission and realizing regional sustainable development. How willing herders are to participate in carbon sequestration and mitigation directly determines the corresponding implementation effect. Relevant studies mostly focus on forest households and peasant households, but great uncertainty remains regarding herdsman households. Based on a survey of 404 herdsman households in Inner Mongolian grasslands, this study assessed the cognitive level and participation willingness of herders on carbon sequestration and mitigation of grasslands, and investigated the factors influencing their willingness to participate in the activity. We found that the cognitive level of herders on carbon sequestration and mitigation in Inner Mongolian grasslands was relatively low, with 83% of herdsman households having low cognition and 17% in the state of medium cognition. However, herders are mostly willing to take grassland carbon sequestration and mitigation measures, with 60% of herdsman households being willing to participate, 28% moderately willing to do so, and 12% of unwillingness. This pattern was mainly influenced by the impact of carbon sequestration and mitigation on household income, the economic subsidies and the call for ecological environment protection from the government. The herders tend to be willing to participate when they think that the government calls for ecological environment protection are essential. In contrast, they tend to be unwilling to participate if they think the subsidies too low and the negative effect of sequestration measure on income is essential. We found that the family financial income of herders is a key factor limiting the improvement of participation willingness in this area. It is necessary to improve the cognition of herders for the development of carbon sequestration and mitigation projects.